联系电话
摩纳哥赛道 > > 正文

2020年考研英语(二)阅读理解真题及答案

2019-12-25 11:51       来源:    摩纳哥赛道

摩纳哥赛道 www.oxxfcc.com.cn  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals form robotic rats.

  They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat- one social and one asocial一for 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

  During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side

  Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

  Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

  The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We´ d assumed we´ d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary, ”says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

  The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,”says Wiles.

  21. Quin and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can________

  [A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

  [B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

  [C] attain sociable traits through special training

  [D] send out warning messages to their fellow

  22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?

  [A] It followed the social robot.

  [B]It played with some toys.

  [C] It set the trapped rats free.

  [D]It moved around alone.

  23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they________

  [A] tried to practice a means of escape

  [B] expected it to do the same in return

  [C] wanted to display their intelligence

  [D]considered that an interesting game

  24. James Wiles notes that rats________

  [A]can remember other rat´s facial features

  [B] differentiate smells better than sizes

  [C] respond more to cations than to looks

  [D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

  25. It can be learned from the text that rats________

  [A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

  [B] are more socially active than other animals

  C] behave differently from children in socializing

  [D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn and her colleagues和a test定位到第一段第二句。To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats. 为了查明这是否延伸到了非生物,Quinn和她的同事测试了老鼠能否从机器老鼠身上探测到社会信号。正确答案A是原文的同义替换。选项B的distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one区分友好的老鼠和敌对的老鼠,并未提及,是常识性干扰。选项C的attain sociable traits through special training通过特殊训练获得社交品质,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项D的send out warning messages to their fellow向它们的同伴发出警告信息,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。

  22.【答案】D It moved around alone.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the asocial robot和experiment定位到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.同时,不具有社交能力的机器人只能进行简单的前后左右移动。正确答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同义替换。选项A的It followed the social robot.它跟随具备社交能力的老鼠,与原文the social robot rat followed the living rats around不符,原文说的是具备社交能力的老鼠跟随真老鼠,属于张冠李戴。选项B的It played with some toys.它玩一些玩具,与原文不符,原文中说的是具备社交能力的老鼠玩同样的玩具,属于张冠李戴。选项C的It set the trapped rats free.它释放了被困的老鼠也与原文内容不符,原文说的同样是具备社交能力的老鼠,而题干问的是不具备社交能力的老鼠在实验中做了什么,属于张冠李戴。

  23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn和the rats released the social robots往下定位到第四五段,第五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn. Quinn说:这可能会让老鼠更好地记住早些时候已经释放了机器人,并希望机器人在它们被困住时能回报它们的恩惠。正确答案B expected it to do the same in return是原文的同义替换。干扰项A的 tried to practice a means of escape试图尝试一种逃跑的方法,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项C的 wanted to display their intelligence想要展示它们的智慧,文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项D的considered that an interesting game觉得是个有趣的游戏在原文当中也没有体现,属于无中生有。

  24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词James Wiles定位到第六七段,尾段尾句We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles. Wiles说:“我们人类似乎对机器人很着迷,事实证明其他动物也很着迷。”再结合尾段前面部分的阐述,会发现正确答案C respond more to actions than to looks对行动的反应多于对外表的反应,是原文的类似表达。干扰项A的can remember other rat´s facial features能够记住其他老鼠的面部特征,与原文内容不符,原文第六段说的是假设赋予机器老鼠面部特征,那都不重要,属于偷换概念。选项B的differentiate smells better than sizes与体型大小相比,能够更好地区分气味,原文中只提到赋予机器老鼠真老鼠的气味,与原文不符,属于偷换概念。选项D的can be scared by a plastic box on wheels会被装有轮子的塑料盒子吓坏,文中机器老鼠只是装有轮子的塑料盒子,还是属于偷换概念。

  25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  解析:本题目为推断题,考察基于全文主旨进行推断。题干并没有具体关键词,因此需要通过选项回到文中逐一对应。正确答案D are more sensitive to social cues than expected对社交线索比预期更敏感,与原文尾段首句The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots.(这一发现显示了老鼠对社交暗示的敏感程度,即使是来自基本机器老鼠的社交暗示)属于类似表达。选项A的appear to be adaptable to new surroundings似乎能适应新环境,在文中并未提及,属于无中生有。选项B的are more socially active than other animals比其他动物更活跃,文中只提到其他动物也一样会对机器人着迷,属于偷换概念。干扰项C的behave differently from children in socializing在社交活动中表现得与孩子不同,与原文内容相反,原文内容指的是孩子们倾向于把机器人当作人来对待,即使他们只显示简单的社会信号。这一点与老鼠是一样的,属于正反混淆。

  Text 2

  It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.

  The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America´s highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It´s not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

  Today´s CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there´ s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.

  The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn´t explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”

  Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

  26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

  [A] The growth in the number of corporations

  [B] The general pay rise with a better economy

  [C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

  [D] Close cooperation among leading economies

  27. Compared with their predecessors, today´s CEOs are required to______

  [A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

  [B] finance more research and development

  [C] establish closer ties with tech companies

  [D] operate more globalized companies

  28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______

  [A] continual internal opposition

  [B] strict corporate governance

  [C] conservative business strategies

  [D] Repeated government warnings

  29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______

  [A] confirm the status of CEOs

  [B] motivate inside candidates

  [C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

  [D] increase corporate value

  30. The most suitable title for this text would be______

  [A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  [B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

  [C] CEOs´ challenges of Today

  [D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

  26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因的提问,定位到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.了解CEO薪酬增长的最佳模式是,CEO人才在一个顶级公司的商业机会迅速增长的世界里是有限的。正确答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms增加顶级公司商业机会的增加。干扰项A的The growth in the number of corporations公司数量的增长,文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会,属于偷换概念。选项B的The general pay rise with a better economy好转的经济带来的普遍加薪,文中并未提到better economy,属于无中生有。选项D的Close cooperation among leading economies 主要经济体之间的密切合作,文中也并未提到经济体之间的何做,属于无中生有。

  27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词predecessors及today´s CEOs定位到第三段第二句They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. 他们还需要比他们的前任更好的公关技巧,因为即使是一个小失误的成本也可能是巨大的。选项中并未提到,继续往后看Then there´s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. 还有一个事实是,美国的大公司比以往任何时候都更加全球化,供应链遍布更多的国家。正确答案D operate more globalized companies经营更全球化的公司是该句内容的同义替换。干扰项A的foster a stronger sense of teamwork培养更强的团队合作意识,文中提到意识,只有对金融市场有很好的了解,甚至公司应该如何进行交易的意识,属于偷换概念。选项B的finance more research and development资助更多的研发,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的establish closer ties with tech companies与科技公司建立更紧密的联系,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

  28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the 1970s定位到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. 然而,首席执行官的薪酬主要是在这一治理更加有力的时期一直居高不下。正确答案B strict corporate governance严格的公司管理,属于原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的continual internal opposition持续的内部对立在文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C的 conservative business strategies 保守的商业策略,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的repeated government warnings 政府的再三警告定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

  29.【答案】D increase corporate value

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词High CEO pay及顺序出题规则,继续看尾段,定位句是And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.当公司把首席执行官的薪酬与股票价格挂钩时,股票市场的反应是积极的,这表明这些做法不仅为首席执行官带来机制,而且创造了公司价值。正确答案D increase corporate value增加公司价值,是原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的confirm the status of CEOs证实CEO的地位,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项B的motivate inside candidates激发内部候选人的积极性,文中尾段首句首席执行官的最高薪水是付给外部候选人的,而不是付给那些舒适的内部人选,属于偷换概念。选项C的boost the efficiency of CEOs提高CEO的效率,定位段未提到,属于无中生有。

  30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  解析:本题目为主旨题,考察文章主旨。根据题干分析文章主题词为CEO的薪酬,所以排除C项、D项选项A的CEOs Are Not Overpaid 首席执行官的薪水并不高。选项B的CEO Pay: Past and Present CEO的薪酬:过去和现在,而CEO过去的薪酬并不是原文中心,属于偏离主题,因此正确选项为A。

  Text 3

  Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.

  Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city ´s decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone´s future looks uncertain at best.

  Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers一who must pay fees or buy better vehicles 一rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.

  It´s not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year´s mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

  It´s not that measures such as London´s Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents´ health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.

  But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments一Britain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.

  Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, 。school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.

  31. Which of the following is true about Madrid´s clean air zone?

  [A] Its effects are questionable

  [B]It has been opposed by a judge

  [C] It needs tougher enforcement

  [D] Its fate is yet to be decided

  32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?

  [A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

  [B] They prove impractical for city councils.

  [C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

  D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

  33. The author believes that the extension of London´s Ulez will .

  [A] arouse strong resistance.

  [B] ensure Khan´s electoral success.

  [C] improve the city s traffic.

  [D] discourage car manufacturing.

  34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

  [A] Local residents

  [B]Mayors.

  [C] Councilors.

  [D] National governments.

  35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.

  [A] will raise low-emission car production

  [B]should be forced to follow regulations

  [C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

  [D] should be put under public supervision

  31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid´s clean air zone定位到前两段,首段说明背景Madrid´s clean air zone的执行暂停。继续找第二段,尽管能够提高空气质量,但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收??畹木龆?,下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的进行,Madrid´s clean air zone的未来看起来也不确定。正确答案D Its fate is yet to be decided它的命运尚未决定,是原文内容的替换表达。选项A的 Its effects are questionable.其效果值得怀疑。与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。选项B的It has been opposed by a judge.它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid´s clean air zone,而是停止征收??畹木龆?。选项C的It needs tougher enforcement.它需要更严格的执行。文中是执行已经停止,与原文内容不符,属于偷换概念。

  32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measures及tackle dirty air定位到第三段第二句:That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的费用转嫁给那些必须支付费用或购买更好车辆的司机,而不是汽车制造商,因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染的真正原因。正确答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.他们给个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。选项A的 They are biased again car manufactures.他们对汽车制造商有偏见,文中提到汽车制造商,却并未提到对其有无偏见,属于偷换概念。选项B的They prove impractical for city councils.这些措施对市议会来说是不切实际的。选项C的They are deemed too mild for politicians.他们被认为对政治家来说太温和了。定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

  33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 extension和London’s Ulez定位到第四段:And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan在2021年胜出,并按照他的意愿将其延伸至南北环路,肯定会引发更多驾车者的强烈反对,届时他们将受到影响。正确答案A arouse strong resistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。选项B的ensure Khans electoral success确保Khans选举成功,文中提到的是如果这个人赢了,属于偷换概念。选项C的 improve the city´s traffic改善城市交通,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项D的discourage car manufacturing抑制汽车制造业也并未在定位段提到,属于无中生有。

  34.【答案】D National governments

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干信息,问的是作者的具体观点。定位到第六段:But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain´s and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市长和议员们只能对一个比任何一个城市或城镇都大得多的问题做这么多的工作。他们之所以采取行动,是因为英国和欧洲其他国家的政府未能做到这一点。正确答案D National governments作者认为国家政府应该解决这个问题,与原文内容一致。选项A的 Local residents当地居民,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项B和C的mayors and councillors出现在定位句,但是与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。

  35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations

  解析:本题目为推断题,考察具体细节的推断。根据题干信息auto companies,定位到尾段首句:require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance要求汽车公司使其车辆符合要求。正确答案B should be forced to follow regulations应该被迫遵守规定,与原文信息一致。选项A的 will raise low-emission car production将提高低排放汽车产量,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C和D的will upgrade the design of their vehicles 和 should be put under public supervision将升级他们的车辆设计、应该接受公众监督在原文中没有相关信息。

  Text4

  Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this springthe most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was bom after 1995, give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that´s tighter than it´s been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.

  If"entitled"is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those bom between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and expert who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren,´t interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

  One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the great good.

  36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_____.

  [A] are recognized for their abilities

  [B] are in favor of job offers

  [C] are optimistic about the labor market

  [D] are drawing growing public attention

  37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_____.

  [A] what a tough economic situation is like

  [B] what their parents expect of them

  [C] how they differ from past generations

  [D] I how valuable a counselors advice is

  38. The word"assuage"(line 9, para 2)is closet in meaning to_____.

  [A]define [B]relieve [C] maintain [D] deepen

  39.It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_____.

  [A] care little about their job performance

  [B] give top priority to professional training

  [C]think it hard to achieve work-Life balance

  [D] have a clear idea about their future job

  40 Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are_____.

  [A]less realistic B] less adventurous [C]more diligent [D] more generous

  36. 【C】are drawing growing public attention细节题。根据题干直接定位到文章根据提干第一段第一句话。信息选项中的“drawing growing public attention ”则对应到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks” (近几周的关注度在稳步提高)”,其中attention原词复现,rising和growing同义复现;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

  37. 【B】what a tough economic situation is like;细节题。根据题干中询问Generation Z的特点我们来到第二段。题干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四行”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like(经济列车受到重创是什么样子的)”;信息选项中的“tough economic situation ”则对应到句中的“economic train wreck ”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

  38. 【C】relieve;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第九段第二句话:“The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt”,所以解题的关键是判断”The booming economy(繁荣的经济)”和”generational sense of anxious urgency(代际焦虑)”的关系;根据常识判断,繁荣的经济可以降低求职者的焦虑;再结合上一道题我们知道,Gen Zs是务实和谨慎(practical and cautious)的一代;由此可以得出繁荣的经济并未降低求职者的焦虑,原文已有并未(have done little),选项B中的relieve(减轻)与我们的判断一致,因此答案为C。而其它的选项A define(定义),B maintain(保持),deepen(加深)和我们的判断都不一致。

  39. 【A】have a clear idea about their future jobs; 推断题。题目中明确出题段落(from Paragraph 3)。因此,第三段的第一句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己的理想工作选择专业)和选项D have a clear idea about their future jobs(对自己的未来工作有明确认识)相符合。根据原文中的第二句话(未来雇主最重要的特性是工作的稳定性,第二位是职业发展与培训,第三位是吸引人的目标)排除答案A和B;选项C并未体现。

  40. 【B】less adventurous;细节题。题干中的compared with millennials定位到文章第二段:the catch words for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(Gen Zs的口号是务实和谨慎);由此判断出选项B不爱冒险为正确答案。其余均与原文不不符。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41 -45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A]Give compliments, just not too many.

  [B] Put on a good face, always.

  [C] Tailor your interactions.

  [D] Spend time with everyone.

  [E] Reveal, don´ t hide, information.

  [F] Slow down and listen.

  [G] Put yourselves in others´ shoes.

  Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office

  Is it possible to like everyone in your office? Think about how tough it is to get together 15 people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers. You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are some ways that you can get the whole office on your side

  41.____

  If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped around them. But you won´t be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those who hid lost trustworthiness. The lesson is not that you should make your personal life an open book, but rather, when given the option to offer up details about yourself or painstakingly conceal them, you should just be honest.

  42._____

  Just as important as being honest about yourself is being receptive to others. We often feel the need to tell others how we feel, whether it´s a concern about a project, a stray thought, or a compliment. Those are all valid, but you need to take time to hear out your coworkers, too. In fact, rushing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don´t value their opinions. Do your best to engage coworkers in a genuine, back- and-forth conversation, rather than prioritizing your own thoughts.

  43._____

  It´s common to have a“cubicle mate" or special confidant in a work setting. But in addition to those trusted coworkers, you should expand your horizons and find out about all the people around you. Use your lunch and coffee breaks to meet up with colleagues you don´t always see. Find out about their lives and interests beyond the job. It requires minimal effort and goes a long way. This will help to gTow your internal network, in addition to being a nice break in the work day.

  44._____

  Positive feedback is important for anyone to hear. And you don´t have to be someone´s boss to tell them they did an exceptional job on a particular project. This will help engender good will in others. But don´t overdo it or be fake about it. One study found that people responded best to comments that shifted from negative to positive, possibly because it suggested they had won somebody over.

  45.______

  This one may be a bit more difficult to pull off, but it can go a long way to achieving results. Remember in dealing with any coworker what they appreciate from an interaction. Watch out for how they verbalize with others. Some people like small talk in a meeting before digging into important matters, while other are more straightforward. Jokes that work one person won´t necessarily land with another, So, adapt your style accordingly to type. Consider the person that you re dealing with in advance and what will get you to your desired outcome.

  41. 答案是E Reveal, don’t hide, information

  解析:根据段落转折句,“你这样做对谁都没有好处。”所以接下来就是作者的观点。他说一个研究发现观察者们一直对那些和他们坦诚的人评价很高,而对那些有所隐藏的失去信任。所以就是要真实,不要隐藏信息。

  42. 答案是F Slow down and listen

  解析:根据段落中心句: In fact, rishing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don’t value their opinions. 意思是实际上,急着表达你的观点可能会让同事们觉得你没有重视他们的观点。因此就是听取别人的观点。

  43. 答案是D Spend time with everyone

  解析:根据段落转折句,“除了那些你信任的同事,你还应该扩大你的圈子,并且寻找所有你身边的人。因此就是要和每个人在一起。

  44. 答案是A Give compliments, just not too many

  解析:根据段落转折句,“但是不要过度去做或者做假。应该做的内容就在下句,“一个研究发现,人们对于从负面到正面的评价反应最好,也许因为这个评价表明他们有比其他人做得好。因此这就是要称赞,但是不能太多。

  45. 答案是C Tailor your interactions

  解析:根据段落中心句,最后一句:So, adapt your style accordingly to type. 意思是要相应地把你的风格适合于不同的类型。也就是因人而异的意思。


在职读研实用信息
版权声明
    凡本站稿件类型为“原创”的所有文字、图片和音视频等稿件,均为启文教育网版权所有,未经本站协议授权,任何媒体、网站及个人均不得转载或以其它方式发表,违者必究。如需转载,请注明出处。
相关资讯文章
热点推荐简章
推荐阅读
网友阅读
热门招生院校
热门招生专业

中国在职研究生网请您关注

  • 微信公众号
    微信公众号
  • 微博关注
    微博关注